Monday, August 24, 2020
Experimental Drug Therapies for the Treatment of Wet-Type Age-Related Macular Degeneration :: Medicine Medical Disease Papers
Test Drug Therapies for the Treatment of Wet-Type Age-Related Macular Degeneration In a general public where innovation has protracted the normal life expectancy, age-related scatters present new treatment challenges. In the United States, senior residents beyond 65 years old record for 21% of the populace (US, 2001). This gathering of individuals will encounter changes in their perceptual frameworks as they age, making it harder for them to work. A portion of these progressions will happen deliberately and normally, while others will result from ailment. On account of vision, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the main source of visual impedance in the old populace (Levin, 1997). Specialists gauge that ten million senior residents beyond 75 one years old with AMD, roughly 33% of Americans 75 and more established (Levy, 1999). AMD assaults the retina of maturing eyes and is found in two structures. The most well-known structure analyzed is dry-type AMD. In this infection, representing 85% of all AMD analyze (Thompson and Daniels, 1998), the layers of the retina disintegrate and flimsy in the fovea bringing about serious vision misfortune in the focal line of vision. Frequently, fat stores, called drucen, create and additionally hinder vision. Wet-type AMD makes up the staying 15% of AMD findings and advances more quickly and horrendously than dry-type AMD. This type of AMD is liable for serious visual impedance in 90% of all AMD cases analyzed (Gisele and Bressler, 2001; Thompson and Daniels, 1998). Albeit dry-type AMD doesn't for the most part foresee wet-type AMD, between 10-20% of patients with dry-type AMD in the long run create wet-type AMD (Gisele and Bressler, 2001). Wet-type AMD is portrayed by choroidal neovascularization (CNV), or the development of fresh blood vessels in the layers of the retina (Gisele and Bressler, 2001). Not exclusively do these new vessels obstruct vision by blocking approaching light, they likewise spill blood into the encompassing tissues bringing about additional harm. Right now, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has just affirmed two treatment methods for wet-type AMD (Yam and Netting, 1999; Visudyne, 2000). Scientists previously created photocoagulation, a strategy using lasers to close up new vessels and seal spills. Shockingly, this treatment is just helpful in roughly 10% of patients who look for it and, while photocoagulation decreases vision misfortune, the outcomes are just present moment and the danger of harm to close by photoreceptors is high (Gisele and Bressler, 2001; Yam and Netting, 2001; Thompson and Daniels, 1998). The most as of late endorsed treatment alternative is verteporfin photodynamic treat ment, a two-advance treatment affirmed by the FDA in 2000 (Visudyne, 2000).
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Idea and Theories of Sociology as a Social Science Meaning of Sociology is a sociology that reviews people in their social setting including their plunge, establishments, frameworks, associations and their effect on cultural development.Advertising We will compose a custom article test on Concept and Theories of Sociology as a Social Science explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is worried about understanding the structure and working of human culture, how it changes after some time and the powers that represent the changes. Sociologists accordingly study people corresponding to the general public and how human lead, shapes the general public and its structures and the other way around. Sociological creative mind Sociological creative mind is a basic field of criminology worried about the relationship that exists between the convictions of the general public and the life as experienced in the general public. It is the basic assessment of issues against the contemporary perspectives on the general public. People oc cupied with sociological creative mind, think that its lovely to pose inquiries so as to find solutions to what they watch. They don't depend totally on what the general public holds as evident or bogus rather, they question the premise of its honesty or misrepresentation. Along these lines, sociological creative mind is worried about the causes and results of the cooperation between different parts of the general public, for example, standards, thought processes and current events in the general public. Defenders of sociological reasoning don't concur with the realities that are passed on in the general public starting with one age then onto the next without testing reality of these realities. Social and individual issues/issues Personal issues concern people and regularly have no impact on the general public overall. Social issues then again, are issues influencing a few people in a social setting. The contrast between the two sorts of issues is that, an individual issue influence s an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s living style and one should manage it for example, frequencies of weight and joblessness among others. The social issue would one say one is which can't be kept away from by the bigger gathering since, all or the greater part of the people are influenced by it.Advertising Looking for exposition on sociologies? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the two types of issues begin from similar bases more often than not. Both social and individual issues may start from both the social setting and individual mix-ups. For example, absence of work might be brought about by absence of steady organizations, for example, schools in the general public or then again, an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to benefit from circumstances in the general public. A portion of the issues are extremely hard to characterize, for example, fetus removal. Auxiliary Functionalism Theory of humanism Structural functionalism is t he sociological hypothesis which holds that the general public is a framework comprised of a lot of segments or parts which cooperate to encourage security. Every one of these parts, has its significant capacity that can't be disregarded since, it adds to the effective activity of the general public as a framework. The significant segments of the cultural framework are; customs, conventions, standards, establishments and conviction frameworks. These are social procedures and structures which characterize the general public by giving it structure and peculiarity.
Sunday, July 26, 2020
Reasons Behind the Rise in Heroin Use Addiction Drug Use Heroin Print Reasons Behind the Rise in Heroin Use By Buddy T facebook twitter Buddy T is an anonymous writer and founding member of the Online Al-Anon Outreach Committee with decades of experience writing about alcoholism. Learn about our editorial policy Buddy T Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on August 05, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on October 18, 2019 copy Getty Images More in Addiction Drug Use Heroin Cocaine Marijuana Meth Ecstasy/MDMA Hallucinogens Opioids Prescription Medications Alcohol Use Addictive Behaviors Nicotine Use Coping and Recovery There is little doubt that heroin use is making a comeback in the United States given the increase in the number of seizures of the illegal drug at U.S. borders and the rapid increase in overdose deaths reported throughout the country. The difference now is heroin use is not limited to the dark corners and back alleys of urban America, its finding its way into rural back roads, suburban streets, and high-end apartments in New York City, cutting across all demographic groups. The Reach of Heroin Almost daily, news articles from law enforcement and health officials across the nation report sharp local increases in heroin overdose deaths. In Vermont, Gov. Pete Shumlin devoted his entire 2014 annual address to the legislature to what he called the heroin crisis in the state. The current prevalence and reach of heroin use in society were seen in the death of Academy Award-winning actor Philip Seymour Hoffman, who was found dead with a needle in his arm and 70 bags of heroin in his $10,000-a-month New York apartment. Heroin FAQ Heroin Use Increases Sharply According to data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), heroin use rose sharply for people ages 12 to 49 between 2007 and 2011. However, the trend appears to be reversing for first-time use, even as the numbers of those addicted climb. Past-month heroin users rose from 373,000 in 2007 to 620,000 in 2011, but declined to 435,000 in 2014 and 329,000 in 2015.Those addicted to heroin increased from 179,000 in 2005 to 369,000 in 2011 and to 591,000 in 2015.First-time heroin users jumped from 106,000 in 2005 to 212,000 in 2014 but declined to 135,000 in 2015.The age of initiation of heroin use trended toward younger ages from 2005 to 2010 but reversed and by 2014 was at an older age than ever at 29.6 years old.A positive trend is that more users who inject heroin are seeking treatment, increasing from 26% in 2003 to 46% in 2013. The vast majority have no wait or only a one-week wait to enter treatment in 2013. Heroin Overdose Deaths Increasing The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration developed its 2016 National Drug Threat Assessment Summary using data from more than a thousand state and local law enforcement agencies. According to the DEAs report, deaths attributed to heroin overdose rose sharply from 1,879 in 2004 to 10,574 deaths in 2014. The DEA attributed the increase in deaths from heroin overdose to three factors: the availability of high-purity heroin, people abusing prescriptions turning to heroin, and people using heroin for the first time at a younger age. Availability of High-Purity Heroin Law Enforcement officials in every area where an increase of heroin overdose deaths has been seen also reported an increase of high-purity heroin available at the street level. Southwest border seizures of heroin increased 352% from 2008 to 2015, according to the DEA. Officials believe the increase in higher purity heroin into the U.S. is coming from Mexico and South America, expanding into areas of the country used to a less-pure form of the drug. The Different Types of Heroin Prescription Drug Abusers Switching to Heroin The crackdown by federal and state authorities on the prescription drug abuse epidemic had some unintended consequences. The focus on shutting down pill mills and doctor shopping made prescription drugs like OxyContin more difficult to get and more expensive. Consequently, many former pain pill abusers turned to heroin instead because it was readily available and less expensive. According to SAMHSA, people who previously used prescription pain pills non-medically were 19 times more likely to initiate heroin use than non-prescription abusers. In fact, SAMHSAs 2013 report showed that almost four out of five (79.5%) of new heroin users previously abused prescription pain relievers. Law enforcement and treatment officials likewise report that a majority of heroin users they encounter previously abused prescription opioids. Can Prescription Abuse Lead to Heroin Use? New Heroin Users Were Younger Another factor DEA officials think contributes to heroin overdose deaths is that more people were using the drug at a younger age. The average age of first use of heroin dropped significantly from 2007 to 2010, reaching a low of 21.4 years. However, that trend reversed and the age of initiation climbed back to 29.6 years in 2014. Overdose deaths could be attributed, in part, to the fact that many young people are also binge drinkers. The combination can be a deadly one. What Is the Danger? There are two main dangers in using heroin: it is highly addictive and it has a high risk of accidental overdose. Unlike prescription drugs, heroin purity and dosage amounts can vary widely. Basically, the heroin user never really knows what level of dosage they may be taking. If someone is used to using a form of heroin that has been heavily cut or stepped on by mixing it with other ingredients and they suddenly find themselves with a batch of pure heroin, the consequences can be fatal. The Health Effects of Heroin Combined With Other Drugs Sometimes heroin dealers mix the drug with other substances. For example, a batch of heroin sold in bags marked Theraflu, Bad Ice, or Income Tax was mixed with the potent painkiller fentanyl and was blamed for 22 overdose deaths in the Pittsburgh area, proving again that heroin users never know what they are getting. Also, heroin is the most commonly found illicit substance involved in accidental alcohol and/or drug intoxication deaths. Drinking alcohol with any opioid is highly dangerous because both are central nervous system depressants that can combine to stop the users breathing. The DEA is working to address this by increasing the awareness among practitioners and pharmacists of the heroin and prescription drug problem. Heroin: Everything Youâve Been Afraid to Ask
Friday, May 22, 2020
The legalization of marijuana is a very debatable subject, some people think it is bad and should be illegal, and some people think it is good in some ways if used properly. It should be legal because it has few negative effects, it serves other purposes than getting people stoned, and it is better than other drugs. Many advocates say Ã¢â¬Å" Marijuana is a common drug used by many people.Ã¢â¬ (Sandra) A lot of people think marijuana has numerous amounts of negative effects on the body. Marijuana helps the body in many different ways. It relaxes and relives stress from many people. It has been proven that marijuana does not kill brain cells, like most people seem to think it does. Marijuana also helps the creativity of people. It gives people newÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Marijuana is used for other things than getting someone stoned. Many advocates say Ã¢â¬Å"Marijuana is used for hemp making for fabrics and necklaces.Ã¢â¬ (William J.) Many advocates say, Ã¢â¬Å"If marijuana is so bad then why do doctors prescribe it to patients to help cure cancer, AIDS, headaches, migraines, glaucoma, and many other diseases.Ã¢â¬ (Sandra) Marijuana is used to calm people down and relieve stress. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Marijuana does have some negative effects, but compared to other drugs marijuana is harmless. Other drugs are highly addictive were marijuana is not. Alcohol is one of the most leading causes of car crashes. Marijuana is nowhere near being a leading cause of death. Other drugs can lead to cancer where marijuana is used to cure it, and other drugs can lead to deaths. Other drugs impair you vision, but marijuana does not. All the other drugs except alcohol are gateway drugs, and the only way to purchase them is by smuggling them across the border. Many advocates say Ã¢â¬Å"we should begin to reflect that reality in our state and federal legislation, and stop acting as if otherwise law-abiding marijuana smokers are part of the crime problem. They are not, and it is absurd to continue using law enforcement resources arresting them.Ã¢â¬ (Gary) Many advocates also say, Ã¢â¬Å"Far more harm is caused by marijuana prohibition than by marijuana itself.Ã¢â¬ (Gary) The legalization of marijuana is a very debatable subject. Many peopleShow MoreRelatedEssay on Pros and Cons of Legalizing Marijuana1880 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesPros and Cons Of Legalizing Marijuana Marijuana is a very common street and recreational drug that comes from the marijuana plant. The plant that produces marijuana, as is well known, is the hemp plant cannabis sativa. The pharmacologically active ingredient in marijuana is tetra-hydro-cannabinol. Marijuana is used to heighten perception, affect mood and relax. It is estimated that about thirty percent of adults in the U.S. use marijuana. Many people think marijuana is harmless. It is not.Read MoreEssay on Legalizing Marijuana: Pros and Cons1599 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn 2007, $42 billion was spent on the marijuana prohibition. That is more money than the war on drugs spent on all types of drugs three years before when $40 billion was spent all together. Why is our government focusing on a drug that can be called merely harmless to those who use it? Why is this drug getting more money spent on it than drugs that are highly addictive and life threatening? Marijuana is not as dangerous as people may want it to seem. Marijuana is a product of the Cannabis staviaRead MorePros and Cons of Legalizing Marijuana2690 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pages Marijuana Angela Stackhouse 05/07/09 Marijuana The uses of marijuana amongst teenagers has increased over the years making it the most accessible drug in America as well as one the most beneficial due to its medical uses. According to the article of Marijuana Use Among Youths Is a Serious Problem, written by the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA) (2004), stated that the uses of marijuana has impacted the youth in many ways due to the unknown factorsRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized? Essay1030 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMarijuana should not be legalized There are many reasons why marijuana should not be legalized. There are also reasons why marijuana should be legalized. However, the cons for legalizing marijuana outweigh the pros, which lead to why marijuana should not be legalized. The topic of marijuana is extremely important in our society and one worth investigating. It was a blast finding information that I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know about this topic. In this essay, I will break down facts, statistics, and data aboutRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?870 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Legalize Marijuana In my opinion I think marijuana should be legalized across the country because it does benefit a lot of people with autoimmune problems, anything that weakens the immune system, cancer, M.S., and more. DoctorÃ¢â¬â¢s believe that the prohibition of marijuana causes the public more harm than good. Those are some of the pros. Some of the cons of legalizing marijuana is it has an addictive nature, it can alter a user s perception, is popularly known as a gateway drug, does damageRead MoreMarijuana: For Better or For Worse?1740 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMarijuana is a harmful drug and should not be legalized. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug used in the United States. It is a plant that grows from the ground however, it contains many harmful toxins. There are many pros and cons for the legalization of marijuana although there are more cons than there are pros; one being that children are the ones who abuse marijuana the most. Surprisingly, against other beliefs, marijuan a smoking actually does impair the userÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to drive aRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1224 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLegalizing Marijuana Many different web pages and read over the information that they provided and this is what is found. The debit for this topic is all over the place some say we should some say we should not legalize marijuana. The three main topics that will going to go more into depth with are the medical benefits, monetary benefits and the renewable benefits. But first, let a bit about marijuana, so other names for it is weed, herb, pot, grass, bud, ganja, Mary Jane to name a few. MarijuanaRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1463 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLegalizing marijuana is the most argumentative issue in United States. It has been discussed for many years. There are many debatable questions that need the final answers such as: Should Marijuana be legalize and taxed? Should medicinal marijuana in all states? Should the issue be addressed at the national or at the state level? Everything has its own pros and cons, so does legalizing marijuana. It can reduce the pain in medical purposes, prevent consumers from consuming marijuana illegally, andRead MoreEssay about Should Marijuana be Legalized?968 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesShould marijuana be legalized for recreational or medical use? This is a debate that has been happening for quite some time and this is not just a debate that is happening among people. There are many that have taken sides including medical personal and government officials. Currently in the United States there are two states in which recreational use of marijuana is legal; Colorado and Washington. There are three states currently that have pending legislation to legalize recreational use; CaliforniaRead MoreLegalizing Marijuana For Recreational Use1362 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageslegalize marijuana for recreational use. Similar to the age limitation set for buying and consuming alcohol and smoking of tobacco products, Colorado has set the age limit for recreational use for adults who are at least twenty-one years of age and over to use an ounce of this drug. A ccording to the drugabuse.gov website, the drug marijuana is defined as a greenish-gray mixture of the dried, shredded leaves and flowers of Cannabis sativaÃ¢â¬âthe hemp plant. After two years of legalizing marijuana, Colorado
Friday, May 8, 2020
The Impact of Two Strong Political Parties on AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Politics The Constitution has nothing to say about political parties. Nowhere does it define political parties or explicitly specify that there should be two dominant parties. Nevertheless, America has had a strong two party system for last 150 years, a degree of party stability and endurance that can be found in no other nation (Landy and Milkis, 451). This system of two dominant parties has both its advantages and its drawbacks, the same as any system will. The two strong parties simplify and stabilize American politics from both the citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ and the politiciansÃ¢â¬â¢ point of view and allow for government to be unified across the separation of powers built into the ConstitutionÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The parties formed after the Constitution was adopted as the need to systematically search for and encourage popular support became apparent. The structure of a party allows a group of like-minded politicians to mold popular support in the favor of the candidate of their choic e where alone they could only accomplish the creation of multiple less organized and therefore less politically potent factions. The nature of the political system already in place gave no value to coming in second or third in elections at any level of government, leading to the natural growth of two strong parties who battle for supremacy at every election (July 22). The winner takes all, and the opposition spends their time getting ready to try again as they wait for their next chance. Once the two parties, Democrat and Republican, were firmly settled in to the system they affected legislation to give themselves automatic ballot access and state funding, making election that much harder for other parties and thereby ensuring that it remained a two party system (July 22). The two parties have continued their 150 year long tug-of-war battle for dominance and over time have become symbols of American politics. It is nearly impossible to hold a political discussion without bringing up either or both of the parties or some prominent member thereof in reference to where they stand on the issue being discussed. A majorShow MoreRelatedPolitical Figures Henry Clay And Andrew Jackson1232 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFinal Paper One of the biggest rivalries in the United States Government that still impacts how the country operates today is between political figures Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson. Although Henry Clay never made it into presidency, he made many impactful decisions and events on behalf of our country. During the mid 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s, there was a rapid change in the economics, demographics, and social aspects of the growing United States deeply affecting the lives of citizens. At the root of these issuesRead MoreThe United States Political System935 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe United States political system is dominated by an intense battle for power. Those who have control, have the ability to influence the way our nation is operated. While every citizen has the opportunity to impact politics, some citizens and groups are at a disadvantage. In America, we struggle to ensure that every individual has a chance to equally participate in the political process. Although anyone can run for political office in the United States, the cost of a campaign is expensive. ThroughoutRead MoreThe American Two Party System1709 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe American two-party system is the result of the way elections are structured in the United States. Representatives in the Congress and in state legislatures are elected to in single-member districts where the individual with the most votes wins. Seeing that only one party s candidate can win in each district, there is a strong motivation for political candidates to organize themselves into two competing parties. By doing so, party members and candidates maximize their chances of winning electionsRead MorePolitical Systems And Its Effect On The World1263 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn this day in age, Politics have a vast impact on the world we live in. Leadership, on a macro-level, has mantled the world through all of time. These consecutive political systems have developed to become a government. Each governme nt varies throughout each country. Thus, created different forms of government: Autocracy, Monarchy, Socialism, Communism, Theocracy, Plutocracy, and Pluralism. These forms of government are created based of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s absolute routes, means of production, elimination ofRead MoreAn Examination of Americas Two Party System Essay1697 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAn Examination of Americas Two Party System Democracy in the United States is based on the indirect representation of the people by elected officials who are usually chosen by direct vote. Almost from the beginning of the United States history, however, two parties have shared the great majority of the elected positions from the local level to the presidency. However, up until the mid-1850s when the Republican party was formed, other parties such as the Whigs, Federalists, and Anti-FederalistsRead MoreRichard Byrd s The Cold War1340 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSea and Explorer: The Life of Richard Byrd. Power at Sea examines the impact naval superiority by countries around the globe has had on humans worldwide from the late 1800s well into the early 1900s. Another book written about significant changes in American Society is The Life of Richard Byrd which chronicles the ByrdÃ¢â¬â¢s exploration of Antarctica that took place between the two world wars. Rose has desire to understand the impacts of global issues on specific nations of interest; because of this, TheRead MoreDiscrimination And The War At Appomattox Court House1486 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesnot, discrimination is a problem that has been occurring for thousands of years and is one that will continue to occur for years to come. American history has seen its share of discrimination, perhaps none more evident than the mid-19th century. Political tensions between northern and southern states concerning statesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights and slavery sent the country into turmoil. The bloodiest battle in American history soon began and the country would never be the same again. However, after the conclusion ofRead MoreThe Life Of Abraham Lincoln1356 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRepresentative, U.S. President, and lawyer is regarded as one of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s most successful presidents due to his incredible impact on the nation, and his views on slavery and civil rights. Abraham Lincoln, also referred to by Honest Abe, had one of the hardest jobs a president can have and that i s being a war-time leader. Despite the odds, Lincoln persevered through his rough childhood and found his way into politics and later became one of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest and most respected presidents, because of all theRead MoreThe Islamic Republic Of Iran1426 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSince the 4th century, the Persian world has held great might in world politics. In 1979, Iran was officially established and the Islamic Republic of Iran. Since then it has been an active and vocal player in world politics. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s rich history of political revolutions have inspired new waves of government control, tyrannical and benign leaders, and great cultural change over time. The strong religious beliefs expressed by the people of this nation are both a form of unity and disunity that cause widespreadRead MoreClassical Era in Latin America and Europe Essay1569 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescivilization developed its own unique style of politics, culture and economies, the economic and social patter ns in Latin America distinctly detached this civilization from any Western society, which accounted for obvious distinctions in both culture and politics. In politics, the most apparent feature of the Western Society was the creation of new political ideologies, resulting in neither an absolute or dictatorial structure. The instability of Latin American politics created a weakened structure, therefore
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
When one looks at the atrocities in the world today and the example used by Johnson of the innocent infant burned in a building, a common reaction is empathy and sympathy. If Johnson insists on viewing God as a mortal and asserting that a human being would not allow such atrocity, then it is useful to look at approaches taken by ethical, moral actors in the world today. Looking at the Common-Good approach, we may assert that in order for us to have qualities, such as empathy, compassion, and other redeemable traits, we must have situations in our lives that evoke these qualities. We will write a custom essay sample on God and The Common Good Approach : Allowing Evil to Demonstrate Empathy or any similar topic only for you Order Now Without pain and suffering, there is no need for these positive traits, therefore, the argument that God is not good does not apply. His position is to ensure that men can become good of their own free will. Johnson would argue this approach equates to allowing men to become evil on their own free will, as well. But, this is the essence of free will and of the Common-Good approach, we must be able to see both good and evil to decide how to best achieve a society that can combat this inevitability of free will. Therefore, God can be looked at as human, then human approaches to ethics and the common good must be utilized, so under the Common Good approach, God is good. The Common Good approach essentially deals with an idea that individual good is equated and ensured with public good and that individual, honorable traits should be shared as a community in a healthy fashion. In this way, goodness, is not good if it is not shared. To apply this to counteract JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s argument, it can be said, then, that in order to recognize good to share it, we must also be able to recognize bad or Ã¢â¬Å"evilÃ¢â¬ , in order to know how to counter it in a world of free will. Ã¢â¬Å"Appeals to the common good urge us to view ourselves as members of the same community, reflecting on broad questions concerning the kind of society we want to become and how we are to achieve that societyÃ¢â¬ (Velasquez, et al, 1996, 2). JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s argument to this would be that just as there is an imagined God that promotes good in the actions of man in reference to free will, there could easily be an evil God that does the opposite. Ã¢â¬Å"For example, we could say that God is evil and that he allows free will so that we can freely do evil things, which would make us more truly evil than we would be if forced to perform evil actsÃ¢â¬ (Johnson, 1983, 88). This argument against free will does not compliment JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s insistence that we look at God as a human being. Just as societies and groups strive to make communities better, there are groups, who conspire to do evil deeds and go against the common good. If God is only human, then God can only hope that others will chose not to do evil with their free will. In conclusion, Johnson is flawed in looking at God as if God is human, then attaching inhuman traits or superhuman traits to action or inaction. If God is made of human qualities, then there will be flaws in even GodÃ¢â¬â¢s own self and design. But, with the insistence of Johnson to claim God as human, then we can simply look at ethical human approached to good and evil. We can be hopeful that with the Common Good approach that moral actors will do what is right with the idea that God would act in this same manner. References Johnson, B. C. Ã¢â¬Å"The Problem of God and EvilÃ¢â¬ in The Atheist DebaterÃ¢â¬â¢s Handbook. (1983). Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. 99-108. reprint. Velasquez, M. , Andre, C. , Shanks, T, Meyer, S. J. Meyer M. Ã¢â¬Å"Thinking Ethically: A Framework for Moral Decision MakingÃ¢â¬ in Issues in Ethics (Winter, 1996). 2-5. How to cite God and The Common Good Approach : Allowing Evil to Demonstrate Empathy, Papers
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
Research Proposal on Taxation Paper Taxation is the process of paying certain sums of money for the government in order to maintain the proper living conditions in the country. Taxes are imposed by government to provide people with up-to-date well-developed communication and transport systems, sewers, electricity, gas, water, security, the services of the police, firemen, health care and nearly everything a modern person requires for the normal life. Taxation appeared in the process of the development of the human civilization and people had always to pay them. In the ancient times people were imposed by taxes which carried different character. People had to pay their landlord, a count or duke for the territory they rent, for the cattle, crops, even air and the right to exist on the territory of the country. Later on such cruel and insane taxes disappeared and people started to pay for the thing they really required for good life. Today taxation looks much more liberal and people pay a certain percent of their income for the government which divided the money between the spheres which really need it. For example, education and health care exist only due to taxation. People are supplied with energy and resources also due to the wise management of the money collected with the help of taxation. With the help of taxation the government also finances such spheres which are not always supported by the public, for example, military services and the development of brand new military technologies and machines. Unfortunately, extremely much money collected with taxation is donated into such spheres. We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Taxation specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Taxation specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Taxation specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Without taxation the existence of the human civilization is fairly impossible, because people can not provide themselves with everything they need and they devote this job to the government. A well-composed research proposal should give a brief analysis of the general situation with taxation. Students should explain the purpose, types of taxes and the methods they are imposed. Moreover, it is reasonable to present the consequences which wait for an individual who refuses to pay taxes. One should analyze the positive and the negative sides of taxation to be able to offer his own ideas concerning this phenomenon. A research proposal is expected to be an interesting paper on the topic which contains extra fresh thoughts and solutions valuable for the discipline or the particular problem under research. The process of research proposal writing is a challenge for inexperienced students who have no ideas how to compose the paper well. With the assistance of free example research proposals on taxation in Ghana one will broaden his background knowledge and see the way of writing of such types of papers. A well-composed original free sample research proposal on taxation in the Internet is the best sort of help in the difficult situation connected with academic paper writing. NOTE!!! All free sample research proposals and examples on Taxation are 100% plagiarized, we are here to help you! EssayLib.com is a leading research proposal writing service, which can offer you the solution you have been looking for. With thousands of written research papers and proposals for MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s and PhD degrees, we can give you exactly what you need at very affordable prices. Our experienced writers will prove you that high quality and exclusivity is a trademark of our products. We can guarantee your confidentiality and promise you strict on time delivery. There are many reasons for EssayLib.com to become your favorite research proposal writing service, but all we are asking you Ã¢â¬â just give us a try!